This post is part of a series of posts entitled Durandal and Webpack. Check-out the Introduction here if you haven't already, as well as the online examples

Durandal implements a process known as composition, which allows developers to compose arbitrary Views and ViewModels together into a single output. Much like how React lets you nest Components within your render method. This composition workflow is used extensively in Durandal and is the process by which your ViewModel and View(s) are stitched together to create the basic building blocks of your application.

By default, the composition engine deals with what are known in Durandal as moduleIds and viewUrls, which are URLs that point to where the ViewModel or View are situated, respectively. Since Webpack doesn't understand this natively, we'll need to enhance this functionality a little and allow us to directly pass the module, rather than a path pointing to it.


The logic for this method is fairly straight forward, taking a single moduleId string and returning a Promise instance that resolves with the module:

We'll override this method to allow the moduleId to be either a String or a Function. In the latter case, this function is given a single argument, another function we'll call cb, which takes the following form:

The cb function should be called with null as the first argument if no error occurred, and the resolved module as the second parameter. This may look familiar to you if you've used Node extensively, as it's the standard Node.js callback pattern.

With this in mind, let's take a look at the override in full:

This may look complex, but basically all it's allowing you to do is specify moduleId as a Function, which can either return the module directly, or execute a passed callback when you've retrieved it asynchronously (more on why we want this later!).


The logic for this method is a little more complex, but we're only interested in the first parameter:

We'll need to override this method to allow the viewOrUrlOrId to be a bare HTML string (a String whose first character is a <).

First, we check the viewOrUrlOrId parameter to see if it's both a string and starts with a <. If it does, we assume it's actually a view as opposed to a viewUrl, and return it as a resolved Promise. If it doesn't, we simply proceed with the normal Durandal functionality, which helps us maintain backwards compatibility.

A note on these enhancements
You'll need to include these enhancements before your app.setRoot() call, to ensure any calls are intercepted by the new functionality. Otherwise, things may not work as expected

Sample usage

Now we've got our new functionality in place via our enhancements, let's see a practical example of how to use this new functionality with Durandal, so Webpack can bundle our Views and ViewModels!

ViewModel views

Normally, you wouldn't need to specify the View for a particular ViewModel instance, as it's inferred by convention by Durandal, depending on the view strategy you've got set up. We'll need to make things more explicit if we want Webpack to bundle our views, however.

We can specify our views as explicit dependencies directly on the ViewModel instances by setting our getView method to one which returns our required view HTML:

Notice we are using the built-in viewEngine.processMarkup method here. Durandal expects the output of a getView call to be a DOMElement instance, so we'll delegate this parsing operation to Durandal since it's already included and handles it nicely.

That's it. Together with our enhancements this is all that's needed to allow both Durandal and Webpack to understand the inter-dependency of our View and ViewModel. Durandal composes just like before, and Webpack can bundle our view together with our app. Simples!

composition Binding Handler

The compose binding handler can take various forms, as explained in the Durandal documentation. A sample of these is given below

Since we're not using Require.js, we'll no longer pass moduleIds or viewUrls to the compose binding, and will instead always pass a module or HTML instead, respectively. We'll store these as properties on the ViewModel, using require to retrieve them as static dependencies. For example, amending the previous code sample:

Notice how the dependencies for this ViewModel are immediately visible by simply viewing the viewModel.js file. This is a helpful by-product of this approach and should help you quickly review the top-level dependency graph of your ViewModel without the need to look over your view file.


We've implemented some enhancements to the core Durandal system.acquire and viewLocator.locateView methods which allow us to pass module and view HTML directly to the composition engine. This lets us specify our dependencies directly on the ViewModel, and allows Webpack to understand and bundle the different parts of our application together in an effective way.

For a more hands-on approach, or for those of you who'd simply like to look over the code in action, take a look at the durandal-webpack repository and the online example.

Next Chapter (coming soon!): Durandal and Webpack: Part 3 - Router